ASTM A312 is a standardized specification for the production of seamless, welded, and heavily cold-worked austenitic stainless steel pipes. Used chiefly in high-temperature and corrosive environments, the product encompasses a variety of grades based upon the makeup of the steel, such as TP304, TP304L, TP316, TP316L, TP321, TP347, TP347H, TP310 and TP310S. Following production, most of these austenitic steels undergo further cold-working to generate more durable strength and rigidity. This commonly involves a process of cold drawing for small sizes with some sizes requiring additional steps including heat treatment to bolster strength levels.
ASTM A312 can be provided in either its annealed and pickled condition or its heat tempered state. If the latter approach is taken, then the grades employed would be as follows: TP304H, TP304LH, TP316H, TP316LH, TP321H, TP321LH, TP347H, TP347LH, and TP310H. This type of conditioning is used in applications that require working with higher temperatures and highly corrosive environments.
Duplex stainless steel grades can also be found amongst the variety of ASTM A312. These grades are typically processed in either the annealed and pickled condition, however, they are also available in a heat-treated state that is detailed in ASTM A312/A312M. Specific varieties include TP304D, TP316D, and TP321D.
ASTM A312 transitions into super duplex stainless steel grades, namely TP304SD, TP316SD, and TP321SD. This grade is usually annealed and pickled but also comes with the added benefit of being made available in a heat treated form. This variation is specified in ASTM A312/A312M instead.
ASTM A312 is available not only in austenitic steel grades, but also in grades composed of austenite and ferrite. Such austenitic-ferritic grades are usually provided in an annealed and pickled state, but they can also be supplied in a heat-treated condition (according to ASTM A312/A312M). The prominent austenitic-ferritic alloy varieties are TP304F, TP316F, and TP321F.
ASTM A312 is offered in high-temperature grades, which may be delivered in either the annealed and pickled condition, or in the heat treated state. If supplied as heat treated, these grades – TP304HT, TP316HT, and TP321HT – are stipulated in a separate specification, ASTM A312/A312M.
Those seeking grades of ASTM A312 are in luck – this steel can be acquired in an explosive welded form. This version is usually provided when annealed and pickled, though it can also come in a heat-treated state – for that particular feature, you’ll need to keep an eye out for its own unique specification, ASTM A312/A312M. Explosive welded variants include TP304EW, TP316EW, and TP321EW.
ASTM A312 is available in putrescible corrosion-resistant grades, too. Sold mainly in the annealed and pickled condition, these grades are also present in the form of heat-treated versions found under a different specification named ASTM A312/A312M. Grappling with corrosion? Then TP304CR, TP316CR, and TP321CR are your options!
ASTM A312 can be bought in both welded and unwelded formats. If you require the welded condition, you’ll need to purchase a specification under ASTM A312/A312M. The different unwelded grades available are TP304, TP304L, TP316, TP316L, TP321, TP347, TP347H, TP310 and TP310S.
Heat exchanger and condenser tubes are covered under the ASTM A312 specification, and they come in a variety of grades. These include TP304H, TP304LH, TP316H, TP316LH, TP321H, TP321LH, TP347H, TP347LH, TP310H and TP310S. Vessels can be delivered either in an annealed and pickled state or heat-treated per the ASTM A312/A312M criteria for added durability.
Thinner varieties of ASTM A312 grade stainless steel are also accessible.
Post time: 2023-06-26